Émile Picard
Émile Picard  

Born  Paris, France 
24 July 1856
Died  11 December 1941 Paris, France 
(aged 85)
Nationality  French 
Alma mater  École Normale Supérieure in Paris 
Known for  Picard functor Picard group Picard theorem Picard variety Picard–Lefschetz formula Picard–Lindelöf theorem Painlevé transcendents 
Awards  Fellow of the Royal Society^{[1]} 
Scientific career  
Fields  Mathematics 
Institutions  University of Paris École Centrale Paris 
Thesis  Applications des complexes lineaires a l'etude des surfaces et des courbes gauches^{[2]} 
Doctoral advisor  Gaston Darboux^{[2]} 
Doctoral students  Sergei Bernstein Paul Dubreil Jacques Hadamard Gaston Julia Traian Lalescu Philippe Le Corbeiller Paul Painlevé Mihailo Petrović Simion Stoilow Ernest Vessiot Henri Villat André Weil Stanisław Zaremba 
Prof Charles Émile Picard FRS(For)^{[1]} FRSE (French: [ʃaʁl emil pikaʁ]) (24 July 1856 – 11 December 1941) was a French mathematician. He was elected the fifteenth member to occupy seat 1 of the Académie française in 1924.^{[3]}
Life[edit]
He was born in Paris on 24 July 1856 and educated there at the Lycée HenriIV. He then studied Mathematics at the École Normale Supérieure.^{[4]}
This section possibly contains original research. (June 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Picard's mathematical papers, textbooks, and many popular writings exhibit an extraordinary range of interests, as well as an impressive mastery of the mathematics of his time. Modern students of complex variables are probably familiar with two of his named theorems. Picard's little theorem states that every nonconstant entire function takes every value in the complex plane, with perhaps one exception. Picard's great theorem states that an analytic function with an essential singularity takes every value infinitely often, with perhaps one exception, in any neighborhood of the singularity. He made important contributions in the theory of differential equations, including work on Picard–Vessiot theory, Painlevé transcendents and his introduction of a kind of symmetry group for a linear differential equation. He also introduced the Picard group in the theory of algebraic surfaces, which describes the classes of algebraic curves on the surface modulo linear equivalence. In connection with his work on function theory, he was one of the first mathematicians to use the emerging ideas of algebraic topology. In addition to his theoretical work, Picard made contributions to applied mathematics, including the theories of telegraphy and elasticity. His collected papers run to four volumes.
Like his contemporary, Henri Poincaré, Picard was much concerned with the training of mathematics, physics, and engineering students. He wrote a classic textbook on analysis and one of the first textbooks on the theory of relativity. Picard's popular writings include biographies of many leading French mathematicians, including his father in law, Charles Hermite.
Family[edit]
In 1881 he married Marie, the daughter of Charles Hermite.
Publications[edit]
 Lectures on Mathematics (1899)
See also[edit]
Bibliography[edit]
 Picard, Émile (1891–1896). Traité d'Analyse. Paris: GauthierVillars et fils. OCLC 530823.^{[5]}
 Picard, Émile (1905). La science Moderne et son état Actuel. Paris: E. Flammarion. OCLC 43307396.
 Picard, Émile (1922). La Théorie de la Relativité et ses Applications à l'astronomie. Paris: GauthierVillars. OCLC 1025334.
 Picard, Émile (1922). Discours et Mélanges. Paris: GauthierVillars. OCLC 4855336.
 Picard, Émile (1931). Éloges et Discours Académiques. Paris: s.n. OCLC 13473598.
 Picard, Émile (1978–1981). Œuvres de Ch.É. Picard. vol. I–IV. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. OCLC 4615520.
References[edit]
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Hadamard, J. (1942). "Emile Picard. 1856–1941". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. 4 (11): 129–150. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1942.0012.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Émile Picard at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
 ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Émile Picard", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
 ^ Biographical Index of Former Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1783–2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July 2006. ISBN 0 902 198 84 X.
 ^ Craig, T. (1893). "Picard's Traité d'Analyse". Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 3 (2): 39–65. doi:10.1090/s000299041893001663.
External links[edit]
 1856 births
 1941 deaths
 Scientists from Paris
 19thcentury French mathematicians
 20thcentury French mathematicians
 Lycée HenriIV alumni
 École Normale Supérieure alumni
 Mathematical analysts
 Grand Croix of the Légion d'honneur
 Members of the Académie française
 Members of the French Academy of Sciences
 Foreign Members of the Royal Society
 Members of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences
 Members of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
 Fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
 Foreign Members of the Russian Academy of Sciences
 Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint James of the Sword
 Corresponding Members of the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences
 Members of the Ligue de la patrie française